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Posts tagged ‘Osiris’

Osiris rising

For millennia, July 19th was a magical moment in Egypt: the day when Sirius, the Dog Star, rose and the annual flood began, crashing through the cataracts above Aswan before making its way along the length of the country to the delta and the sea.

Along its route, a succession of Nilometers was constructed to measure the water each year, to estimate the agricultural harvest likely to follow and to assess taxes due.

So perhaps I should begin by wishing you a happy new year, ancient Egyptian style, as this day traditionally marked a new beginning for all tillers of the land.

What the Nile flood meant, in good years, was renewal with the deposit of a thick layer of fertile silt brought down from the highlands of what is now Ethiopia (80% of the Nile’s waters in Egypt are sourced from the Blue Nile, which rises there). It followed that, every year, farmers would sow their seeds in fresh soil – a soil so rich that the harvests were celebrated in detail over a period of literally thousands of years in carvings or frescoes on the walls of tombs and temples, decorative pavements, papyrus scrolls and artefacts.

I think the annual event was reflected in the Osiris myth, in which the murdered god was brought back to life by his sister-wife Isis. The story, commemorated in annual festivals, also appeared in certain funerary rituals such as the sowing of wheat seeds in a mould shaped to resemble Osiris’ form, their germination representing the principle of regeneration. You can see these in the National Museum in Cairo, part of the extraordinary haul of treasures found in King Tutankhamen’s tomb.

So at this moment in mid-July, I pause for a while to reconnect with the country’s ancient past, and to remember that the Nile, for all that she has been tamed by barrages and controlled by dams, is still an awe-inspiring presence in the land.

On Kasr El-Nil Bridge

There was another aspect to the river, besides the theme of annual renewal, of course: the floods were unpredictable.

Perhaps we think more usually of their failure. Insufficient water at this time of year meant low levels in the irrigation canals that criss-crossed the land, and a scant supply to support the sowings in September-October and then again in the spring. With this came famine.

Other years, the waters came down with extraordinary force. Recently, I have been reading the letters of Lucie Duff Gordon, written in the 1860s during an extended stay in Luxor (Upper Egypt), where it was hoped the dry climate would help her recover from tuberculosis. What devastated the countryside then was not drought, but flooding: the Nile overran its banks, destroying villages, ruining cotton and food crops alike, bringing disease that killed most of the cattle, and leaving the villagers destitute.

It is a sobering and moving account written by an intelligent and sensitive witness. Lady Duff Gordon did not hold herself aloof from the villagers, but participated fully in their daily lives, from sharing picnics by the threshing floor to taking coffee and hubble-bubbles with the menfolk. Her observations of the tribulations of the farmers are remarkably perceptive and interspersed with horror at the indifference of both the Khedivial administration and the boatloads of tourists who passed by and looked the other way.

Nowadays, we may feel somewhat removed from such vulnerability to nature’s forces, but we forget her power at our peril. The soil in my garden is, in part, a gift of the Nile: Simply put, I am its trustee for a while, before moving on.

Letters from Egypt – Lucie Duff Gordon, pub. by Virago Travellers. See also Katherine Frank’s biography of her: Lucie Duff Gordon – a Passage to Egypt.

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Regeneration: at the British Museum

I have come all the way to London to find that the story of Osiris’ rebirth and the fertility of Egypt’s Nile-blessed land are the themes of the moment in Bloomsbury. It’s quite a revelation, all the more so because it is most unlikely we would ever get to see the extraordinary artefacts on show here, in their home setting of Alexandria.

“Sunken Cities: Egypt’s Lost Worlds” at the British Museum* features the underwater archaeological exploration of two great cities of late antiquity. They are Thonis-Heracleion and Canopus, respectively a seaport to the east of what is now Alexandria, and a river port on the Canopic branch of the Nile in the Delta region.

So you might think it would be all about statuary and metal artefacts, perhaps some jewellery and coins – and you would be right, up to a point. But there is more to it than that, for the fertility of Egypt’s ancient land also has a starring role.

In late antiquity, Egyptians and Greeks (and very likely Romans too, later on) joined together to celebrate the renewed wealth of the land by re-enacting the rebirth of Osiris. This sacred festival, the “Mysteries of Osiris”, took place every year over a period of 18 days from mid-October, during the month of Koiak, after the floodwaters receded.

The ancient myth related that Osiris was murdered by his brother Seth, and his dismembered body distributed across Egypt; Isis, sister-wife of Osiris, went in search of the parts, re-assembled them and then, following a miraculous conception, gave birth to a son, Horus, who went on to avenge his father’s murder in a terrible struggle with Seth. Osiris, meanwhile, came to symbolise rebirth and was constantly referenced in statues and frescoes of the pharaohs to underscore their claim to divine status. Later, he was taken by the Greeks to be equivalent to their god Dionysos, associated with wine and vegetation.

In the Mysteries, much of the process was carried out amid an aura of sacred mystery by priests of the temples. In one ceremony, coffin-shaped moulds were filled with soil, barley seeds and holy water, placed in a granite tank and watered until the seeds germinated. Others were filled with a complex mixture of soil, date paste, aromatic plants such as myrrh, sweet reed, Aleppo pine, mint and juniper as well as precious metals and minerals ground to a fine powder.

Within a period of seven days, the Osiris figures were sent in procession along the waterways in custom-made boats, some of them constructed out of sycamore wood, a tree sacred to the god. Imagine, if you will, a procession of boats floating down a canal with their precious cargo of Osiris accompanied by figurines of other gods, and 365 lamps flickering in the twilight. Along the banks, in gaps between the reeds, people bring bowls and trays of food or other votive offerings to present to the gods.

Ultimately, however, the exhibition poignantly reminds us of the fragility of the earth, and of the buildings, grand or humble, that mankind constructs upon it. Built on unstable land, subject to earthquakes and tidal waves, Canopus and Thonis-Heracleion eventually slipped beneath the sea. Only now, under the guidance of French archaeologist Franck Goddio, have their secrets begun to emerge from the waters close to Alexandria.

* At the British Museum, London until 27th November